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syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.17 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide The syslog-ng OSE configuration file source: Read, receive, and collect log messages
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) nodejs: Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications mbox: Converting local e-mail messages to log messages osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes pacct: Collecting process accounting logs on Linux program: Receiving messages from external applications snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol— OBSOLETE unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets stdin: Collecting messages from the standard input stream
destination: Forward, send, and store log messages
amqp: Publishing messages using AMQP elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x elasticsearch2: Sending logs directly to Elasticsearch and Kibana 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files graphite: Sending metrics to Graphite Sending logs to Graylog hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Posting messages over HTTP http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka loggly: Using Loggly logmatic: Using Logmatic.io mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Sending log messages to osquery's syslog table pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications pseudofile() redis: Storing name-value pairs in Redis riemann: Monitoring your data with Riemann smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stomp: Publishing messages using STOMP syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) Telegram: Sending messages to Telegram unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal: usertty() destination Write your own custom destination in Java or Python Client-side failover
log: Filter and route log messages using log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng OSE TLS-encrypted message transfer template and rewrite: Format, modify, and manipulate log messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages db-parser: Process message content with a pattern database (patterndb) Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Statistics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages Third-party contributions Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License About us Third-party contributions

Relay mode

Figure 3: Relay-mode operation

In relay mode, syslog-ng receives logs through the network from syslog-ng clients and forwards them to the central syslog-ng server using a network connection. Relays also log the messages from the relay host into a local file, or forward these messages to the central syslog-ng server.


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Server mode

Figure 4: Server-mode operation

In server mode, syslog-ng acts as a central log-collecting server. It receives messages from syslog-ng clients and relays over the network, and stores them locally in files, or passes them to other applications, for example log analyzers.


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Global objects

The syslog-ng application uses the following objects:

  • Source driver: A communication method used to receive log messages. For example, syslog-ng can receive messages from a remote host via TCP/IP, or read the messages of a local application from a file. For details on source drivers, see source: Read, receive, and collect log messages.

  • Source: A named collection of configured source drivers.

  • Destination driver: A communication method used to send log messages. For example, syslog-ng can send messages to a remote host via TCP/IP, or write the messages into a file or database. For details on destination drivers, see destination: Forward, send, and store log messages.

  • Destination: A named collection of configured destination drivers.

  • Filter: An expression to select messages. For example, a simple filter can select the messages received from a specific host. For details, see Customize message format using macros and templates.

  • Macro: An identifier that refers to a part of the log message. For example, the ${HOST} macro returns the name of the host that sent the message. Macros are often used in templates and filenames. For details, see Customize message format using macros and templates.

  • Parser: Parsers are objects that parse the incoming messages, or parts of a message. For example, the csv-parser() can segment messages into separate columns at a predefined separator character (for example a comma). Every column has a unique name that can be used as a macro. For details, see parser: Parse and segment structured messages and db-parser: Process message content with a pattern database (patterndb).

  • Rewrite rule: A rule modifies a part of the message, for example, replaces a string, or sets a field to a specified value. For details, see Modifying messages using rewrite rules.

  • Log paths: A combination of sources, destinations, and other objects like filters, parsers, and rewrite rules. The syslog-ng application sends messages arriving from the sources of the log paths to the defined destinations, and performs filtering, parsing, and rewriting of the messages. Log paths are also called log statements. Log statements can include other (embedded) log statements and junctions to create complex log paths. For details, see log: Filter and route log messages using log paths, flags, and filters.

  • Template: A template is a set of macros that can be used to restructure log messages or automatically generate file names. For example, a template can add the hostname and the date to the beginning of every log message. For details, see Customize message format using macros and templates.

  • Option: Options set global parameters of syslog-ng, like the parameters of name resolution and timezone handling. For details, see Global options of syslog-ng OSE.

For details on the above objects, see The configuration syntax in detail.


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Timezones and daylight saving

The syslog-ng application receives the timezone and daylight saving information from the operating system it is installed on. If the operating system handles daylight saving correctly, so does syslog-ng.

The syslog-ng application supports messages originating from different timezones. The original syslog protocol (RFC3164) does not include timezone information, but syslog-ng provides a solution by extending the syslog protocol to include the timezone in the log messages. The syslog-ng application also enables administrators to supply timezone information for legacy devices which do not support the protocol extension.


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