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syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.19 - Administration Guide

Preface Introduction to syslog-ng The concepts of syslog-ng Installing syslog-ng The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide The syslog-ng OSE configuration file source: Read, receive, and collect log messages
How sources work default-network-drivers: Receive and parse common syslog messages internal: Collecting internal messages file: Collecting messages from text files wildcard-file: Collecting messages from multiple text files linux-audit: Collecting messages from Linux audit logs network: Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) nodejs: Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications mbox: Converting local e-mail messages to log messages osquery: Collect and parse osquery result logs pipe: Collecting messages from named pipes pacct: Collecting process accounting logs on Linux program: Receiving messages from external applications python: writing server-style Python sources python-fetcher: writing fetcher-style Python sources snmptrap: Read Net-SNMP traps sun-streams: Collecting messages on Sun Solaris syslog: Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) system: Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform systemd-journal: Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage systemd-syslog: Collecting systemd messages using a socket tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol— OBSOLETE unix-stream, unix-dgram: Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets stdin: Collecting messages from the standard input stream
destination: Forward, send, and store log messages
amqp: Publishing messages using AMQP elasticsearch: Sending messages directly to Elasticsearch version 1.x (DEPRECATED) elasticsearch2: Sending logs directly to Elasticsearch and Kibana 2.0 or higher file: Storing messages in plain-text files graphite: Sending metrics to Graphite Sending logs to Graylog hdfs: Storing messages on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Posting messages over HTTP http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java kafka: Publishing messages to Apache Kafka loggly: Using Loggly logmatic: Using Logmatic.io mongodb: Storing messages in a MongoDB database network: Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) osquery: Sending log messages to osquery's syslog table pipe: Sending messages to named pipes program: Sending messages to external applications pseudofile() python: writing custom Python destinations redis: Storing name-value pairs in Redis riemann: Monitoring your data with Riemann slack: Sending alerts and notifications to a Slack channel smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs Splunk: Sending log messages to Splunk sql: Storing messages in an SQL database stomp: Publishing messages using STOMP syslog: Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol syslog-ng: Forwarding messages and tags to another syslog-ng node tcp, tcp6, udp, udp6: Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) Telegram: Sending messages to Telegram unix-stream, unix-dgram: Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets usertty: Sending messages to a user terminal: usertty() destination Write your own custom destination in Java or Python Client-side failover
log: Filter and route log messages using log paths, flags, and filters Global options of syslog-ng OSE TLS-encrypted message transfer template and rewrite: Format, modify, and manipulate log messages parser: Parse and segment structured messages db-parser: Process message content with a pattern database (patterndb) Correlating log messages Enriching log messages with external data Statistics of syslog-ng Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE Troubleshooting syslog-ng Best practices and examples The syslog-ng manual pages Third-party contributions Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License About us

slack: Sending alerts and notifications to a Slack channel

The slack() destination driver sends messages to a Slack channel using the Slack Web API. For the list of available optional parameters, see Slack destination options. This destination is available in version 3.19 and later.

Declaration:
destination d_slack {
  slack(
    hook-url("https://hooks.slack.com/services/T00000000/B00000000/XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX")
  );
};

The driver allows you to modify nearly every field of the HTTP request. For details, see the Slack API documentation.

By default, the throttle() option is set to 1, because Slack has a 1 message/second limit on Webhooks. It can allow more message in short bursts, so you can set it to 0, if you only expect messages in a short period of time. For details, see the Web API rate limiting in the Slack documentation.

To use this destination, the scl.conf file must be included in your syslog-ng OSE configuration:

@include "scl.conf"

The slack() driver is actually a reusable configuration snippet configured to send log messages using the http() driver. For details on using or writing such configuration snippets, see Reusing configuration blocks. You can find the source of this configuration snippet on GitHub.

Prerequisites

To send messages and notifications from syslog-ng OSE to Slack, you must create a Slack app and a Webhook that syslog-ng OSE can use. For details, see the Slack documentation.

Example: Using the slack() driver

The following example sets the colors and the author of the message.

@include "scl.conf"

destination d_slack1 {
  slack(
    hook-url("https://hooks.slack.com/services/T00000000/B00000000/XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX")
    colors("#000000,#222222,#444444,#666666,#888888,#AAAAAA,#CCCCCC,#EEEEEE")
    color-chooser(7)
    author-name("syslog-ng BOT")
    author-link("https://www.syslog-ng.com/products/open-source-log-management")
    author-icon("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/MrAnno/vscode-syslog-ng/master/images/syslog-ng-icon.png")
  );
};

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Slack destination options

The slack destination of syslog-ng OSE can directly post log messages and notifications to Slack channels. The slack destination has the following options.

author-name()
Type: string or template
Default: 'host: ${HOST} | program: ${PROGRAM}(${PID}) | severity: ${PRIORITY}'

Description: The sender of the message as displayed in Slack. For details, see the author_name option in the Slack documentation.

author-link()
Type: string or URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for the sender of the message as displayed in Slack. For details, see the author_link option in the Slack documentation.

author-icon()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for icon of the author to be displayed in Slack. For details, see the author_icon option in the Slack documentation.

batch-bytes()
Accepted values: number [bytes]
Default: none

Description: Sets the maximum size of payload in a batch. If the size of the messages reaches this value, syslog-ng OSE sends the batch to the destination even if the number of messages is less than the value of the batch-lines() option.

Note that if the batch-timeout() option is enabled and the queue becomes empty, syslog-ng OSE flushes the messages only if batch-timeout() expires, or the batch reaches the limit set in batch-bytes().

Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.19 and later.

For details on how this option influences batch mode, see http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java

batch-lines()
Type: number
Default: 1

Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination in one batch. The syslog-ng OSE application waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency.

For example, if you set batch-lines() to 100, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 messages.

If the batch-timeout() option is disabled, the syslog-ng OSE application flushes the messages if it has sent batch-lines() number of messages, or the queue became empty. If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.

Note that if the batch-timeout() option is enabled and the queue becomes empty, syslog-ng OSE flushes the messages only if batch-timeout() expires, or the batch reaches the limit set in batch-lines().

For optimal performance, make sure that the syslog-ng OSE source that feeds messages to this destination is configured properly: the value of the log-iw-size() option of the source must be higher than the batch-lines()*workers() of the destination. Otherwise, the size of the batches cannot reach the batch-lines() limit.

For details on how this option influences batch mode, see http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java

batch-timeout()
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: 0 (disabled)

Description: Specifies the time syslog-ng OSE waits for lines to accumulate in the output buffer. The syslog-ng OSE application sends batches to the destinations evenly. The timer starts when the first message arrives to the buffer, so if only few messages arrive, syslog-ng OSE sends messages to the destination at most once every batch-timeout() seconds.

For details on how this option influences batch mode, see http: Posting messages over HTTP without Java

ca-dir()
Accepted values: Directory name
Default: none

Description: Name of a directory, that contains a set of trusted CA certificates in PEM format. The CA certificate files have to be named after the 32-bit hash of the subject's name. This naming can be created using the c_rehash utility in openssl. For an example, see Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients. The syslog-ng OSE application uses the CA certificates in this directory to validate the certificate of the peer.

An alternative way to specify this option is to put it into a tls() block, together with any other TLS options. This allows you to separate these options and ensure better readability.

Make sure that you specify TLS options either using their own dedicated option (ca-dir(), ca-file(), cert-file(), cipher-suite(), key-file(), peer-verify(), and ssl-version()), or using the tls() block and inserting the relevant options within tls(). Avoid mixing the two methods. In case you do specify TLS options in both ways, the one that comes later in the configuration file will take effect.

ca-file()
Accepted values: Filename
Default: none

Description: Name of a file that contains an X.509 CA certificate (or a certificate chain) in PEM format. The syslog-ng OSE application uses this certificate to validate the certificate of the HTTPS server. If the file contains a certificate chain, the file must begin with the certificate of the host, followed by the CA certificate that signed the certificate of the host, and any other signing CAs in order.

An alternative way to specify this option is to put it into a tls() block, together with any other TLS options. This allows you to separate these options and ensure better readability.

Make sure that you specify TLS options either using their own dedicated option (ca-dir(), ca-file(), cert-file(), cipher-suite(), key-file(), peer-verify(), and ssl-version()), or using the tls() block and inserting the relevant options within tls(). Avoid mixing the two methods. In case you do specify TLS options in both ways, the one that comes later in the configuration file will take effect.

cipher-suite()
Accepted values: Name of a cipher, or a colon-separated list
Default: Depends on the OpenSSL version that syslog-ng OSE uses

Description: Specifies the cipher, hash, and key-exchange algorithms used for the encryption, for example, ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384. The list of available algorithms depends on the version of OpenSSL used to compile syslog-ng OSE. To specify multiple ciphers, separate the cipher names with a colon, and enclose the list between double-quotes, for example:

cipher-suite("ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384")

For a list of available algorithms, execute the openssl ciphers -v command. The first column of the output contains the name of the algorithms to use in the cipher-suite() option, the second column specifies which encryption protocol uses the algorithm (for example, TLSv1.2). That way, the cipher-suite() also determines the encryption protocol used in the connection: to disable SSLv3, use an algorithm that is available only in TLSv1.2, and that both the client and the server supports. You can also specify the encryption protocols using ssl-options().

You can also use the following command to automatically list only ciphers permitted in a specific encryption protocol, for example, TLSv1.2:

echo "cipher-suite(\"$(openssl ciphers -v | grep TLSv1.2 | awk '{print $1}' | xargs echo -n | sed 's/ /:/g' | sed -e 's/:$//')\")"

Note that starting with version 3.10, when syslog-ng OSE receives TLS-encrypted connections, the order of ciphers set on the syslog-ng OSE server takes precedence over the client settings.

An alternative way to specify this option is to put it into a tls() block, together with any other TLS options. This allows you to separate these options and ensure better readability.

Make sure that you specify TLS options either using their own dedicated option (ca-dir(), ca-file(), cert-file(), cipher-suite(), key-file(), peer-verify(), and ssl-version()), or using the tls() block and inserting the relevant options within tls(). Avoid mixing the two methods. In case you do specify TLS options in both ways, the one that comes later in the configuration file will take effect.

Declaration:
destination d_http {
	http(
		url("http://127.0.0.1:8080")
		tls(
			ca-dir("dir")
			ca-file("ca")
			cert-file("cert")
			cipher-suite("cipher")
			key-file("key")
			peer-verify(yes|no)
			ssl-version(<the permitted SSL/TLS version>)
		)
	);
};
colors()
Type: list of colors in hexadecimal format
Default: '#512E5F,#B03A2E,#E74C3C,#F39C12,#F8C471,#7DCEA0,#5DADE2,#85929E'

Description: The colors to be assigned to the messages of different importance levels.

color-chooser()
Type: integer or template
Default: '${LEVEL_NUM}'

Description: An integer that assigns a color to the message from the list of colors set in the colors() option.

disk-buffer()

Description: This option enables putting outgoing messages into the disk buffer of the destination to avoid message loss in case of a system failure on the destination side. It has the following options:

reliable()
Type: yes|no
Default: no

Description: If set to yes, syslog-ng OSE cannot lose logs in case of reload/restart, unreachable destination or syslog-ng OSE crash. This solution provides a slower, but reliable disk-buffer option. It is created and initialized at startup and gradually grows as new messages arrive. If set to no, the normal disk-buffer will be used. This provides a faster, but less reliable disk-buffer option.

Caution:

Hazard of data loss! If you change the value of reliable() option when there are messages in the disk-buffer, the messages stored in the disk-buffer will be lost.

dir()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the folder where the disk-buffer files are stored.

Caution:

When creating a new dir() option for a disk buffer, or modifying an existing one, make sure you delete the persist file.

syslog-ng OSE creates disk-buffer files based on the path recorded in the persist file. Therefore, if the persist file is not deleted after modifying the dir() option, then following a restart, syslog-ng OSE will look for or create disk-buffer files in their old location. To ensure that syslog-ng OSE uses the new dir() setting, the persist file must not contain any information about the destinations which the disk-buffer file in question belongs to.

disk-buf-size()
Type: number (bytes)
Default:

Description: This is a required option. The maximum size of the disk-buffer in bytes. The minimum value is 1048576 bytes. If you set a smaller value, the minimum value will be used automatically. It replaces the old log-disk-fifo-size() option.
mem-buf-length()
Type: number (messages)
Default: 10000
Description: Use this option if the option reliable() is set to no. This option contains the number of messages stored in overflow queue. It replaces the old log-fifo-size() option. It inherits the value of the global log-fifo-size() option if provided. If it is not provided, the default value is 10000 messages. Note that this option will be ignored if the option reliable() is set to yes.
mem-buf-size()
Type: number (bytes)
Default: 163840000
Description: Use this option if the option reliable() is set to yes. This option contains the size of the messages in bytes that is used in the memory part of the disk buffer. It replaces the old log-fifo-size() option. It does not inherit the value of the global log-fifo-size() option, even if it is provided. Note that this option will be ignored if the option reliable() is set to no.
qout-size()
Type: number (messages)
Default: 64
Description: The number of messages stored in the output buffer of the destination. Note that if you change the value of this option and the disk-buffer already exists, the change will take effect when the disk-buffer becomes empty.

Options reliable() and disk-buf-size() are required options.

Example: Examples for using disk-buffer()

In the following case reliable disk-buffer() is used.

destination d_demo {
    network(
        "127.0.0.1"
        port(3333)
        disk-buffer(
            mem-buf-size(10000)
            disk-buf-size(2000000)
            reliable(yes)
            dir("/tmp/disk-buffer")
        )
    );
};

In the following case normal disk-buffer() is used.

destination d_demo {
    network(
        "127.0.0.1"
        port(3333)
           disk-buffer(
            mem-buf-length(10000)
            disk-buf-size(2000000)
            reliable(no)
            dir("/tmp/disk-buffer")
        )
    );
};
fallback()
Type: string or template
Default: '${MSG} - host: ${HOST} | program: ${PROGRAM}(${PID}) | severity: ${PRIORITY}'

Description: The plain-text summary of the Slack attachment. For details, see the fallback option in the Slack documentation.

footer()
Type: URL
Default: string or template

Description: The footer of the message. For details, see the footer option in the Slack documentation.

footer-icon()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for an image. For details, see the footer_icon option in the Slack documentation.

hook-commands()

Description: This option makes it possible to execute external programs when the relevant driver is initialized or torn down. The hook-commands() can be used with all source and destination drivers with the exception of the usertty() and internal() drivers.

NOTE: The syslog-ng OSE application must be able to start and restart the external program, and have the necessary permissions to do so. For example, if your host is running AppArmor or SELinux, you might have to modify your AppArmor or SELinux configuration to enable syslog-ng OSE to execute external applications.

Using the hook-commands() when syslog-ng OSE starts or stops

To execute an external program when syslog-ng OSE starts or stops, use the following options:

startup()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the external program that is executed as syslog-ng OSE starts.

shutdown()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the external program that is executed as syslog-ng OSE stops.

Using the hook-commands() when syslog-ng OSE reloads

To execute an external program when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is initiated or torn down, for example, on startup/shutdown or during a syslog-ng OSE reload, use the following options:

setup()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines an external program that is executed when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is initiated, for example, on startup or during a syslog-ng OSE reload.

teardown()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines an external program that is executed when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is stopped or torn down, for example, on shutdown or during a syslog-ng OSE reload.

Example: Using the hook-commands() with a network source

In the following example, the hook-commands() is used with the network() driver and it opens an iptables port automatically as syslog-ng OSE is started/stopped.

The assumption in this example is that the LOGCHAIN chain is part of a larger ruleset that routes traffic to it. Whenever the syslog-ng OSE created rule is there, packets can flow, otherwise the port is closed.

source {
   network(transport(udp)
	hook-commands(
          startup("iptables -I LOGCHAIN 1 -p udp --dport 514 -j ACCEPT")
          shutdown("iptables -D LOGCHAIN 1")
        )
     );
};
hook-url()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: The Webhook URL for the Incoming Webhook of your Slack app. This URL must also include the authentication token that syslog-ng OSE uses to authenticate to Slack. For example: https://hooks.slack.com/services/T00000000/B00000000/XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

For details, see the Slack documentation about Incoming Webhooks.

image-url()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for an image. For details, see the image_url option in the Slack documentation.

log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.

Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.

persist-name()
Type: string
Default:

Description:If you receive the following error message during syslog-ng OSE startup, set the persist-name() option of the duplicate drivers:

Error checking the uniqueness of the persist names, please override it with persist-name option. Shutting down.

This error happens if you use identical drivers in multiple sources, for example, if you configure two file sources to read from the same file. In this case, set the persist-name() of the drivers to a custom string, for example, persist-name("example-persist-name1").

pretext()
Type: string or template
Default: None

Description: The text that appears above the attachment block. For details, see the pretext option in the Slack documentation.

retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3

Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the message.

To handle HTTP error responses, if the HTTP server returns 5xx codes, syslog-ng OSE will attempt to resend messages until the number of attempts reaches retries. If the HTTP server returns 4xx codes, syslog-ng OSE will drop the messages.

ssl-version()
Type: string
Default: None, uses the libcurl default

Description: Specifies the permitted SSL/TLS version. Possible values: sslv2, sslv3, tlsv1, tlsv1_0, tlsv1_1, tlsv1_2.

An alternative way to specify this option is to put it into a tls() block, together with any other TLS options. This allows you to separate these options and ensure better readability.

Make sure that you specify TLS options either using their own dedicated option (ca-dir(), ca-file(), cert-file(), cipher-suite(), key-file(), peer-verify(), and ssl-version()), or using the tls() block and inserting the relevant options within tls(). Avoid mixing the two methods. In case you do specify TLS options in both ways, the one that comes later in the configuration file will take effect.

template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.

Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described in Macros of syslog-ng OSE. Please note that for network destinations it might not be appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the receiver can cope with the custom format defined.

throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0

Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this output-rate-limiting functionality only when using disk-buffer as well to avoid the risk of losing messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.

By default, the throttle() option is set to 1, because Slack has a 1 message/second limit on Webhooks. It can allow more message in short bursts, so you can set it to 0, if you only expect messages in a short period of time. For details, see the Web API rate limiting in the Slack documentation.

thumb-url()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for a thumbnail image. For details, see the thumb_url option in the Slack documentation.

timeout()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0

Description: The value (in seconds) to wait for an operation to complete, and attempt to reconnect the server if exceeded. By default, the timeout value is 0, meaning that there is no timeout. Available in version 3.11 and later.

title()
Type: string or template
Default: None

Description: The message title in Slack. For details, see the title option in the Slack documentation.

title-link()
Type: URL
Default: None

Description: A hyperlink for the message title in Slack. For details, see the title_link option in the Slack documentation.

user-agent()
Type: string
Default: syslog-ng [version]/libcurl[version]

Description: The value of the USER-AGENT header in the messages sent to the server.

use-system-cert-store()
Type: yes | no
Default: no

Description: Use the certificate store of the system for verifying HTTPS certificates. For details, see the curl documentation.

workers()
Type: integer
Default: 1

Description: Specifies the number of worker threads (at least 1) that syslog-ng OSE uses to send messages to the server. Increasing the number of worker threads can drastically improve the performance of the destination.

Caution:

Hazard of data loss. When you use more than one worker threads together with disk-based buffering, syslog-ng OSE creates a separate disk buffer for each worker thread. This means that decreasing the number of workers can result in losing data currently stored in the disk buffer files. Do not decrease the number of workers when the disk buffer files are in use.

If you are using load-balancing (that is, you have configured multiple servers in the url() option), increase the number of worker threads at least to the number of servers. For example, if you have set three URLs, set the workers() option to 3 or more.


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smtp: Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs

The destination is aimed at a fully controlled local, or near-local, trusted SMTP server. The goal is to send mail to trusted recipients, through a controlled channel. It hands mails over to an SMTP server, and that is all it does, therefore the resulting solution is as reliable as sending an e-mail in general. For example, syslog-ng OSE does not verify whether the recipient exists.

The smtp() driver sends e-mail messages triggered by log messages. The smtp() driver uses SMTP, without needing external applications. You can customize the main fields of the e-mail, add extra headers, send the e-mail to multiple recipients, and so on.

The subject(), body(), and header() fields may include macros which get expanded in the e-mail. For more information on available macros see Macros of syslog-ng OSE.

The smtp() driver has the following required parameters: host(), port(), from(), to(), subject(), and body(). For the list of available optional parameters, see smtp() destination options.

NOTE:

The smtp() destination driver is available only in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.

Declaration:
smtp(host() port() from() to() subject() body() options());
Example: Using the smtp() driver

The following example defines an smtp() destination using only the required parameters.

destination d_smtp {
    smtp(
        host("localhost")
        port(25)
        from("syslog-ng alert service" "noreply@example.com")
        to("Admin #1" "admin1@example.com")
        subject("[ALERT] Important log message of $LEVEL condition received from $HOST/$PROGRAM!")
        body("Hi!\nThe syslog-ng alerting service detected the following important log message:\n $MSG\n-- \nsyslog-ng\n")
    );
};

The following example sets some optional parameters as well.

destination d_smtp {
    smtp(
        host("localhost")
        port(25)
        from("syslog-ng alert service" "noreply@example.com")
        to("Admin #1" "admin1@example.com")
        to("Admin #2" "admin2@example.com")
        cc("Admin BOSS" "admin.boss@example.com")
        bcc("Blind CC" "blindcc@example.com")
        subject("[ALERT] Important log message of $LEVEL condition received from $HOST/$PROGRAM!")
        body("Hi!\nThe syslog-ng alerting service detected the following important log message:\n $MSG\n-- \nsyslog-ng\n")
        header("X-Program", "$PROGRAM")
        );
};
Example: Simple e-mail alerting with the smtp() driver

The following example sends an e-mail alert if the eth0 network interface of the host is down.

filter f_linkdown {
    match("eth0: link down" value("MESSAGE"));
};
destination d_alert {
    smtp(
        host("localhost") port(25)
        from("syslog-ng alert service" "syslog@localhost")
        reply-to("Admins" "root@localhost")
        to("Ennekem" "me@localhost")
        subject("[SYSLOG ALERT]: eth0 link down")
        body("Syslog received an alert:\n$MSG")
        );
};

log {
    source(s_local);
    filter(f_linkdown);
    destination(d_alert);
};

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smtp() destination options

The smtp() sends e-mail messages using SMTP, without needing external applications. The smtp() destination has the following options:

body()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: The BODY field of the e-mail. You can also use macros in the string. Use \n to start a new line. For example:

body("syslog-ng OSE received the following alert from $HOST:\n$MSG")
bcc()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: The BCC recipient of the e-mail (contents of the BCC field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. Set the bcc() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For example: bcc("admin@example.com") or bcc("Admin" "admin@example.com") or bcc("Admin" "admin@example.com") bcc("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")

You can also use macros to set the value of this parameter.

cc()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: The CC recipient of the e-mail (contents of the CC field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. Set the cc() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For example: cc("admin@example.com") or cc("Admin" "admin@example.com") or cc("Admin" "admin@example.com") cc("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")

You can also use macros to set the value of this parameter.

disk-buffer()

Description: This option enables putting outgoing messages into the disk buffer of the destination to avoid message loss in case of a system failure on the destination side. It has the following options:

reliable()
Type: yes|no
Default: no

Description: If set to yes, syslog-ng OSE cannot lose logs in case of reload/restart, unreachable destination or syslog-ng OSE crash. This solution provides a slower, but reliable disk-buffer option. It is created and initialized at startup and gradually grows as new messages arrive. If set to no, the normal disk-buffer will be used. This provides a faster, but less reliable disk-buffer option.

Caution:

Hazard of data loss! If you change the value of reliable() option when there are messages in the disk-buffer, the messages stored in the disk-buffer will be lost.

dir()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the folder where the disk-buffer files are stored.

Caution:

When creating a new dir() option for a disk buffer, or modifying an existing one, make sure you delete the persist file.

syslog-ng OSE creates disk-buffer files based on the path recorded in the persist file. Therefore, if the persist file is not deleted after modifying the dir() option, then following a restart, syslog-ng OSE will look for or create disk-buffer files in their old location. To ensure that syslog-ng OSE uses the new dir() setting, the persist file must not contain any information about the destinations which the disk-buffer file in question belongs to.

disk-buf-size()
Type: number (bytes)
Default:

Description: This is a required option. The maximum size of the disk-buffer in bytes. The minimum value is 1048576 bytes. If you set a smaller value, the minimum value will be used automatically. It replaces the old log-disk-fifo-size() option.
mem-buf-length()
Type: number (messages)
Default: 10000
Description: Use this option if the option reliable() is set to no. This option contains the number of messages stored in overflow queue. It replaces the old log-fifo-size() option. It inherits the value of the global log-fifo-size() option if provided. If it is not provided, the default value is 10000 messages. Note that this option will be ignored if the option reliable() is set to yes.
mem-buf-size()
Type: number (bytes)
Default: 163840000
Description: Use this option if the option reliable() is set to yes. This option contains the size of the messages in bytes that is used in the memory part of the disk buffer. It replaces the old log-fifo-size() option. It does not inherit the value of the global log-fifo-size() option, even if it is provided. Note that this option will be ignored if the option reliable() is set to no.
qout-size()
Type: number (messages)
Default: 64
Description: The number of messages stored in the output buffer of the destination. Note that if you change the value of this option and the disk-buffer already exists, the change will take effect when the disk-buffer becomes empty.

Options reliable() and disk-buf-size() are required options.

Example: Examples for using disk-buffer()

In the following case reliable disk-buffer() is used.

destination d_demo {
    network(
        "127.0.0.1"
        port(3333)
        disk-buffer(
            mem-buf-size(10000)
            disk-buf-size(2000000)
            reliable(yes)
            dir("/tmp/disk-buffer")
        )
    );
};

In the following case normal disk-buffer() is used.

destination d_demo {
    network(
        "127.0.0.1"
        port(3333)
           disk-buffer(
            mem-buf-length(10000)
            disk-buf-size(2000000)
            reliable(no)
            dir("/tmp/disk-buffer")
        )
    );
};
batch-bytes()
Accepted values: number [bytes]
Default: none

Description: Sets the maximum size of payload in a batch. If the size of the messages reaches this value, syslog-ng OSE sends the batch to the destination even if the number of messages is less than the value of the batch-lines() option.

Note that if the batch-timeout() option is enabled and the queue becomes empty, syslog-ng OSE flushes the messages only if batch-timeout() expires, or the batch reaches the limit set in batch-bytes().

Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.19 and later.

batch-lines()
Type: number
Default: 1

Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination in one batch. The syslog-ng OSE application waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency.

For example, if you set batch-lines() to 100, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 messages.

If the batch-timeout() option is disabled, the syslog-ng OSE application flushes the messages if it has sent batch-lines() number of messages, or the queue became empty. If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.

Note that if the batch-timeout() option is enabled and the queue becomes empty, syslog-ng OSE flushes the messages only if batch-timeout() expires, or the batch reaches the limit set in batch-lines().

For optimal performance, make sure that the syslog-ng OSE source that feeds messages to this destination is configured properly: the value of the log-iw-size() option of the source must be higher than the batch-lines()*workers() of the destination. Otherwise, the size of the batches cannot reach the batch-lines() limit.

batch-timeout()
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: 0 (disabled)

Description: Specifies the time syslog-ng OSE waits for lines to accumulate in the output buffer. The syslog-ng OSE application sends batches to the destinations evenly. The timer starts when the first message arrives to the buffer, so if only few messages arrive, syslog-ng OSE sends messages to the destination at most once every batch-timeout() seconds.

from()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: The sender of the e-mail (contents of the FROM field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. For example:

from("admin@example.com")
or
from("Admin" "admin@example.com")

If you specify the from() option multiple times, the last value will be used. Instead of the from() option, you can also use sender(), which is just an alias of the from() option.

You can also use macros to set the value of this parameter.

header()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: Adds an extra header to the e-mail with the specified name and content. The first parameter sets the name of the header, the second one its value. The value of the header can contain macros. Set the header() option multiple times to add multiple headers. For example:

header("X-Program", "$PROGRAM")

When using the header option, note the following points:

  • Do not use the header() option to set the values of headers that have dedicated options. Use it only to add extra headers.

  • If you set the same custom header multiple times, only the first will be added to the e-mail, other occurrences will be ignored.

  • It is not possible to set the DATE, Return-Path, Original-Recipient, Content-*, MIME-*, Resent-*, Received headers.

hook-commands()

Description: This option makes it possible to execute external programs when the relevant driver is initialized or torn down. The hook-commands() can be used with all source and destination drivers with the exception of the usertty() and internal() drivers.

NOTE: The syslog-ng OSE application must be able to start and restart the external program, and have the necessary permissions to do so. For example, if your host is running AppArmor or SELinux, you might have to modify your AppArmor or SELinux configuration to enable syslog-ng OSE to execute external applications.

Using the hook-commands() when syslog-ng OSE starts or stops

To execute an external program when syslog-ng OSE starts or stops, use the following options:

startup()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the external program that is executed as syslog-ng OSE starts.

shutdown()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines the external program that is executed as syslog-ng OSE stops.

Using the hook-commands() when syslog-ng OSE reloads

To execute an external program when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is initiated or torn down, for example, on startup/shutdown or during a syslog-ng OSE reload, use the following options:

setup()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines an external program that is executed when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is initiated, for example, on startup or during a syslog-ng OSE reload.

teardown()
Type: string
Default: N/A

Description: Defines an external program that is executed when the syslog-ng OSE configuration is stopped or torn down, for example, on shutdown or during a syslog-ng OSE reload.

Example: Using the hook-commands() with a network source

In the following example, the hook-commands() is used with the network() driver and it opens an iptables port automatically as syslog-ng OSE is started/stopped.

The assumption in this example is that the LOGCHAIN chain is part of a larger ruleset that routes traffic to it. Whenever the syslog-ng OSE created rule is there, packets can flow, otherwise the port is closed.

source {
   network(transport(udp)
	hook-commands(
          startup("iptables -I LOGCHAIN 1 -p udp --dport 514 -j ACCEPT")
          shutdown("iptables -D LOGCHAIN 1")
        )
     );
};
host()
Type: hostname or IP address
Default: n/a

Description: Hostname or IP address of the SMTP server.

NOTE:

If you specify host="localhost", syslog-ng OSE will use a socket to connect to the local SMTP server. Use host="127.0.0.1" to force TCP communication between syslog-ng OSE and the local SMTP server.

log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.

Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.

port()
Type: number
Default: 25

Description: The port number of the SMTP server.

reply-to()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: Replies of the recipient will be sent to this address (contents of the REPLY-TO field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. Set the reply-to() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For example: reply-to("admin@example.com") or reply-to("Admin" "admin@example.com") or reply-to("Admin" "admin@example.com") reply-to("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")

You can also use macros to set the value of this parameter.

retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3

Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the message.

subject()
Type: string
Default: n/a

Description: The SUBJECT field of the e-mail. You can also use macros. For example:

subject("[SYSLOG ALERT]: Critical error message received from $HOST")

If you specify the subject() option multiple times, the last value will be used.

throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0

Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this output-rate-limiting functionality only when using disk-buffer as well to avoid the risk of losing messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.

to()
Type: string
Default: localhost

Description: The recipient of the e-mail (contents of the TO field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. Set the to() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For example: to("admin@example.com") or to("Admin" "admin@example.com") or to("Admin" "admin@example.com") to("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")

You can also use macros to set the value of this parameter.


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